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دعوة الى المختصين بعلم الوراثة Genetist

يسرنا نحن (DoctorQari) ان نتلقى افكاركم ومقترحاتكم البحثية في مجال الوراثة الجزيئية والوراثة الخلوية على بريدنا هذا البريد محمى من المتطفلين , تحتاج إلى تشغيل الجافا سكريبت لمشاهدته وسيتم تصميم برامج بحثية علمية مشتركة

 
Problem-based Learning طباعة ارسال لصديق
التقييم العام: / 0
سىءممتاز 
الكاتب: DoctorQari   
13/10/2008
How to integrate Problem-based Learning into classroom instruction 
 
writing450.jpgIntroduction
The unit begins in your Biology class.  The topic is Molecular Genetics.  With a sigh, your students turn to the front of the class.  You begin to lecture or maybe you perform some neat demo, but the students do not seem interested.  Why should they learn Genetics?  When will they ever apply this “useless” information?  Problem Based Learning (PBL) may serve as the answer to entice student learning
How to integrate Problem-based Learning into classroom instruction? Introduction:
Another unit begins in your Biology class.  The topic is Molecular Genetics.  With a sigh, your students turn to the front of the class.  You begin to lecture or maybe you perform some neat demo, but the students do not seem interested.  Why should they learn Genetics?  When will they ever apply this “useless” information?  Problem Based Learning (PBL) may serve as the answer to entice student learning.  
 
What is PBL? 
Problem Based Learning should not be confused with former problem–solving approaches.  Problem-solving approaches have students encountering problems only after they have been presented with a body of information.  These teaching methods often inhibited knowledge acquisition because the students did not know why they were learning during the lectures.  In addition, the narrow focus and abstract context of the problems left the relevance of the information presented in class a mystery. With PBL, learning begins after the students are confronted with an ill-structured problem.  In this way students know why they’re learning.  All the information they gather for a unit of study is learned for the purpose of resolving the problem.  It should be noted that PBL is not a step toward making the curriculum entirely process based and devoid of content.  PBL simply places emphasis on what is needed and how to put it to the most valuable use in a given situation. 
 How to integrate PBL into your classroom
 1.  Choose an ill-structured, realistic problem   The situation must integrate many disciplines and relate to the real world.   The situation is focused around the necessary science content.   The initial situation does not precisely define the problem.  The students must determine the problem.  The initial situation lacks some of the necessary information to develop a solution.   There is not a single, correct way to unravel the problem.  Many paths may be taken and explored.   As new information is gathered the problem definition is changed and refined.   Problem solving is not a linear march.  Students will define the problem, test hypothesis, evaluate, redefine the problem, test hypothesis, evaluate, and so on.   Students will never be absolutely sure that they have the correct resolution because missing information and ethical issues.   A final decision must be made despite conflicts 2.  Teacher’s role – “Metacognitive Coach”   The teacher is not an expert nor is he/she a discussion leader.   The teacher helps students understand the questions to ask during problem definition.   The teacher facilitates information location.   The teacher helps students to sort through potential interpretations.   The teacher coaches students on proper data-handling skills: good note keeping, saving and storing raw data, etc.   Students become problem-solvers with the aid of the teacher’s modeling and coaching and they then take on the responsibility of using the skills on their own. 3.  Offer opportunities for students to test ideas experimentally or with fieldwork Students should generate some of the data required for their resolution themselves.
4. Students should manage their own data
  This involves keeping: A good notebook, Data Analyses, Experimental Planning Sheets, Concept Maps   Students may record their ideas about the problem, plan their strategy to test their hypotheses, and reflect on new data in their journal entries. 5.  Students present their solutions Student presentations can be either oral or written.  
Sample of Teaching Problem Based Learning:
You are in charge to guard a highway. It is 6:00 a.m. on a cool autumn morning.  You are sleeping when the phone rings.  You answer and hear, “Come to the Main Bridge on Route 15.  There has been a major accident and you are needed.”
Quickly you dress and get on the road to hurry to the site of the emergency.  As you approach the bridge, you see an overturned truck that has apparently crashed throng the metal guardrail. It has lost one wheel and is perched on its front axle.  You see “corrosive” written on a small sign on the rear of the truck.  There is a huge gash in the side of the truck and from the gash a liquid is running down the side of the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into a creek.  Steam is rising from the creek.  All traffic has been stopped and everyone has been told to remain in his or her cars.  Many of the motorists trapped in the traffic jam appear to be angry and frustrated.  Police officers, firemen, and rescue squad workers are at the scene.  They are all wearing coveralls and masks.  The rescue squad is putting the unconscious driver of the truck onto a stretcher.  Everyone seems hurried and anxious.
1. The classroom teacher helps the students analyze the problem statement and establish a learning agenda. 2. The learning agenda is organized around 3 questions – What do you know? What do you need to know?  How can you find out what you need to know? 3. Information is organized using a Need-to-Know Board.  The Need-to-Know Board is used during the development of the problem and to track progress. 4. Research to find information can be:         (a) Conducted on their own using libraries, teacher-gathered materials, and experts in the field
        (b) “Time-out” activities - laboratory experiments are conducted, guest speakers brought in, or the teacher presents information.
5. Once it is gathered, the information is evaluated for its usefulness and how it changed the nature of the problem. 6. Finally, at the end of the unit of study, the students develop a resolution to their problem.  The resolutions are tested for their viability and their positive and negative consequences are compared.  The costs and benefits of alternate decisions are considered.

   What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Know? How Do We Find Out?
  Traffic is stopped.   A clear liquid is coming from it.    There is a gash in the side of the truck.   The truck lost one wheel.   Fire trucks are there.“Corrosive” is written on the side of the truck.    Rescue squad is there.   We are in charge of the situation.   What spilled?   Why are police and fire officials there?   What is a corrosive? Why transport it? Do I use it?   Is it safe?What could happen?   What will this do to the environment?   How far does the danger go if there is danger?   How are spills handled?Is the driver drunk?   Find out about spills.Learn what a corrosive is.   Learn about transporting hazardous materials.   Learn what hazardous materials are and about them.   Learn about the liquid that has been spilled in this problem.   Give the driver an alcohol test. 
 
Assessment
Assessment can be incorporated into PBL with the use of lab notebooks.  Teachers can assess for content acquisition through open-ended questions in the log.   These questions will prompt students to describe their understanding about the details of different elements of the problem.  Examples: Log Exercise 1.  Place the central problem in the circle in the center of this page (summarize if you have to).  Using this as your central focus point, create a web showing the relationships among the various parts of the problem. 
 
Resources & Case Studies
As a busy teacher it is sometimes difficult to find the time to develop problems that link directly with the curriculum.  The following web links provide sample case studies or problems that may be integrated into a high school classroom.
 
University at Buffalo
The University at Buffalo gives a large assortment of case studies in biology, chemistry, geology, physics, and engineering.  Although the cases are designed for university level studies, they can be easily integrated into a high school classroom with slightly less demanding expectations of the students. University of Delaware Another U.S. University site, Delaware offers case studies in biology, chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.  Teaching OAC chemistry?  Check out the case study of “Saving for a Rainy Day”. Problem-Based learning in the Biology Classroom Although the case studies are not as detailed on this site, it does offer ideas that a teacher could use to develop a problem-based unit in his/her classroom.  One idea is that of a case of mass fainting.  During a rock concert, four hundred people collapsed or experienced faintness as a result of six different proximal causes (fasting, hypoglycemia, fasting acidosis, orthostasis, hyperventilation – induced cerebral vasoconstriction, and valsalva pressure from screaming and crowding).  A teacher could use this problem during a unit on the interdependence of organ systems. This site also includes a detailed description of how to use PBL in the biology classroom. The Problem Log The Problem Log is published three times a year by the Center for Problem-Based Learning.  Each issue is available on the Internet and can be viewed with the use of Adobe Acrobat Reader.  This resource provides information about PBL, teaching strategies, and case studies.  I briefly glanced through the fall 1997 issue and I discovered an inspiring article entitled “Problem Development – How Did You Do That?”  It detailed the strategy used by one teacher to develop problems for her classroom. Best regards Doctor Qari
آخر تحديث ( 13/10/2008 )
 
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